In philippine writings ,especially in the traditional textbooks, authentic historical events, personalities and realities are hardly mentioned, just to promote or enhance a certain frame of mind for a history that is devoid of factuality.
For the writers of these textbooks, the Filipino-American War ended in the capture of Emilio Aguinaldo and his swearing of allegiance to the American flag in 1901.
These chroniclers actually edited an indigenous history that was so factual if only their textbooks included prominently without any bias the sublime facts about the Magdiwang of the natural inhabitants of Katagalugan as against the mestizo Magdalo of Aguinaldo that massacred the originators of the true Katipunan.
The Magdalo group started the propaganda of deletion, addition and subtraction into the oblivion of the names and deeds of heroic leaders of the masses who continued the struggle from 1903-1907, except the promotion and propaganda for jose rizal.
The die-hard leaders and true uncompromising revolutionists were labeled as “bandoleros” or “tulisanes” or bandits by Aguinaldo’s Magdalo, the Filipino elite collaborators like the Kalibapi of Aquino, and their American and Japanese colonial masters.
Prominent among the ‘bandoleros” or the outlawed guerillas of the Philippine-American War of 1903-1907 was Macario Leon sakay who was born in Tondo, Manila in 1870 of obscure parentage and out of wedlock, who continued the ideals of Magdiwang of the true Katipunan.
Tundo and Pasig were the cradles of the katagalugan revolution in disgust over the name “philippines” that was concocted by the kastila colonialist, magdalo of aguinaldo and commonwealth of quezon,
Maynila was the birthplace of Andres Bonifacio, Emilio Jacinto, Ladislaw Diwa and the “Katipunan” secret revolutionary society in the 19th century, known as a tagalog kingdom of the long forgotten past.
Macario sakay joined the Katipunan in 1894. He later became the president of the popular council “Dapitan” in Tundo, and Sakay was one of the hard cores of the Katagalugan Council of Tundo.
He was a barber and a “zarzuela” stage actor of the “Teatro Porvinir” founded by Andres Bonifacio. Sakay, Jacinto and other Katipuneros helped in the printing and distribution of the “Kalayaan”, the Katipunan official newspaper.
Upon the discovery of the Katipunan plot in August 1896, Sakay joined Andres Bonifacio , Emilio Jacinto and other Katipuneros in the town of Caloocan.
Sakay participated in the early battles of the revolution: in the victorious battle of Montalban in the disasterous battle of Nanka River and the retreat to Balara, to the wilderness of sierra madre.
After the tragic death of Bonifacio in Cavite and the succession of Aguinaldo of the Magdalo faction of the katipunan, records of Sakay’s movement and involvement in the said government could not be found.
Maybe he was in the hills of Balara or he joined Emilio Jacinto in Laguna, the most senior officer of Bonifacio’s Katagalugan Republic in the field.
A revolutionary government was established by Aguinaldo in tejeros convention of 1897 through the elitist magdalo coup which immediately held a snap election after the their treacherous killing of Bonifacio of the Katipunan. to establish Aguinaldo as the president of that republic.
Sakay did not join the elite-led revolution of 1898 against the Americans.The selfish American forces was able to dislodge the said Philippine Republic in Malolos, Bulacan and forced Aguinaldo to retreat to Palanan, Isabela, his final destination ,
It was only then that Aguinaldo remembered the Katipunan in anticipation of his surrender to and defeat by the american forces.
In his subsequent proclamations and letters, he advocated the revival of the defunct Katipunan with the Magdiwang, making it the guerilla arm of the republican army.
Anyone can only surmise the reason for a supposed american promotion of the name philippines, a brainchild of the defunct spanish government that was advocated and relished by the Magdalo faction, instead of Katagalugan of the Magdiwang.
Greed for expansionism and colonialism became the basic adherence to power grabbing by the Magdalo which was composed mainly of mixed blood or inheritance that was mostly of chinese and spanish descent.
The advocacy in the hearts of the Magdiwang was only Katagalugan that was basically the island of Luzon and specific islands in the farther south, and did not include the visayans and muslims of mindanao who in their minds were irreparable.
Macario Sakay and the die-hard Katipuneros never heeded Aguinaldo’s call due to the lingering memories of Bonifacio’s execution , the betrayal of the Katipunan ideals by Aguinaldo, the surrendering the Katagalugan Revolution in the capitulation at Biak-Na Bato (1897), and branding the true patriots as “bandits”, lingered painfully in the minds of the true Katipunan Magdiwang members.
The Katipunan was revived in 1901-1902 after the capture of Aguinaldo of Magdalo, and the fall of general Miguel Malvar of Magdiwang.
The vacuum of revolutionary struggles that was abandoned by the middle class collaborationists was aptly filled by the masses, the class that actually started it. But the conflict between the mestizos and the naturales persisted.
The Katipunero general Luciano San Miguel became the supreme commander of the guerrillas operating in the provinces of Bulacan and Rizal.
Upon the death of San Miguel, another Katipunan loyalist, Faustino Guillermo led the struggle until his capture by the Americans.
After Guillermo’s execution, Macario Sakay, ,Julian Montalan and Cornelio Filizardo led the coalition of revolutionary forces in Rizal, Cavite, Laguna and Batangas area. These names were not given prominence in the books of Magdalo.
The First Katagalugan Republic of Supreme President Andres Bonifacio guided the Revolution of 1896 against Spain. Katagalugan was the name to replace the colonial name Filipinas.
The Katagalugan Republic bannered by Sakay was also the government of the revived Katipunan.
Its officers were: Macario sakay as supremo, Francisco Carreon, Vice President, Lt.Gen. Julian Montalan, commander in charge of military operations with military aides, Col.Ramos, Col. Masigla and Col. Lucio de Vega.
The Katagalugan Republic had a constitution patterned after the Magdiwang’s Katipunan whose incorporators and signers were mostly katipunero-veterans of 1896 who did not join Aguinaldo,
Sakay issued a manifesto to all foreign consulates,declaring that they are patriots fighting for their countries, not bandits as the Americans tried to portray them. He issued a warning that Filipino collaborators and traitors will receive severe punishment.
Waging a guerilla war is the only option available if facing a superior modern trained military force; it is a lesson learned during the American Revolution against the British, the anti-Napoleonic war in Spain, the Cuban and Latin American Revolution against Spain in the 19th century.
Macario Sakay adopted this kind of military tactics: hit and run, ambushes of smaller enemy patrols, guerillas dressing in enemy uniform and vanishing within the population.
They got their ammunition from raids conducted against garrisons , servants working military camps stealing from their masters. The masses provided them food and information on troop movements.
The Americans reacted harshly by putting the whole town’s populace inside a concentration camp and declaring areas outside its perimeters as “no man’s land”- where all natives caught in these area are automatically declared enemy combatants and can be executed on the spot.
Farms remain uncultivated, thus necessary food supplies was cut off. Local land owners and town officials were threatened by Americans of confiscation of their properties, removal from office and sedition charges.
Noble lands of Magdiwang members were confiscated and were promised by the colonial government for distribution to the poor tagalog inhabitants with the benefits of torrens title under the guise of the reign of Manuel Quezon.
This era started the land grabbing of our native lands by the asenderos and meztisos, from spanish haciendas to the american villages, that continues until today.
The Original “Partido Nacionalista” in 1901.
When Aguinaldo took his oath of allegiance to the United States in 1901, the end of the revolution was declared and peace was proclaimed across the land.
Many members of the former Malolos Revolutionary Congress and the local politicians found employment under the American colonial government.
The Magdalo faction of Aguinaldo rejoiced and took over while the Magdiwang troops of the Katipunan were in the hills and hinterlands continuing the struggles for true independence.
Membership in pro- American political “Partido Federalista” (1900) of Trinidad Pardo de Tavera was a must towards a successful political career.
Other political parties were established: Pedro Paterno’s evolutionist (not revolutionists) Liberal Party (1902), Justo Lukban’s Democratic Party (1902), Progressive Party (1905), two nationalist parties; the Partido Urgentista (for urgent independence) and Partido Immediatista (for immediate independence).
The implementation of “divide and conquer” strategy” was fully utilized. The last two parties merged to form the bogus Nacionalista party of 1907 of Manuel L.Quezon , Sergio Osmena and others.
The original “Nacionalista” Party that was founded on August 21,1901 in Calle Gunao,Quiapo, Manila was forgotten.In that Quiapo Assembly, the following officers of the the true Nacionalista were elected:
Santiago Alvarez and Pascual Poblete as Presidents; Andres Villanueva, Vice Resident; MACARIO SAKAY, Secretary General; Francisco Carreon, Alejandro Santiago, Domingo Moriones, Aguedo del Rosario’Cenon Nicdao, Nicolas Rivera, Salustiano Santiago, Aurelio Tolentino, Pantaleon Torres, Valentin Diza, Briccio Pantas, Lope K. Santos, Pio H. Santos, Salustiano Cruz, Valentin Solis and Jose Palma.
Here we can find the rabid ‘Bonifacistas’ and the old Cavite Magdiwang Council pro-Bonifacio wing.
The Original Nacionalista Party was a reunion of the Bonifacio’s “Katagalugan” and the party of the masses who really serious in advocating the immediate unconditional Philippine Independence policy in contrast with the Quezon-Osmena sham Nationalista Party (1907) that superficially advocated independence to woe and confuse the Filipino electorate.
The Americans were fully aware of the true nature of the original Nacionalista Party of Sakay et al, and banned them under the prevailing Sedition Law. Poblete was the political arm of the revived Katipunan or “Katagalugan” Republic of Sakay.
Was Sakay waging a two front war? A guerilla war against the Americans and a legal struggle through the Nacionalista Party . It doesn’t matter to Sakay if he could win the fight for Philippine Independence either by means of bullets or by means of ballot.
The Grand Alliance between the Poblete/Sakay’s “Partido Nacionalista”, Fr.Gregorio Aglipay’s “Iglesia Filipina Independiente” and Dominador Gomez’ labour union, “Union Obrera Democrata ” was formed as a popular united front against the American sovereignty in the Philippines.
The Americans tried to pacify the people through the establishment of a National Assembly and the sponsored local elections, all of which favored the elites.
Another tactic of the Americans was the entrapment of rebel leaders by enlisting the labour leader Dominador Gomez as a peace mediator in 1906.
Sakay and his whole military staff came down to Manila upon the safe conduct pass issued by the American authorities. While attending a dance ball in their honor in Cavite, Sakay and his staff were arrested and brought to Manila as prisoners.They were charged of brigandage and the American controlled court found them guilty of the crime.
Supremo” Sakay and Col. Lucio de Vega was hanged on September 13,1907 inside the old Bibibid Prison in Manila.
Till their last moments they confirmed “MGA TUNAY NA KATIPUNAN KAMI!” as against the collaborationist elites whose names filled the orthodox Filipino textbooks and the great irony of Philippine history:
the names and exploits of its true patriots lay forgotten in dusty manuscripts and old rare hard to find books and no monuments were built in their memories.