agusan … “where the water flows”, an old province in mindanao akiyan … “where there is boiling/frothing” referring to the aklan river baybay … shortened form of the phrase al baybay, “by the shore” shortened to Albay hamtik … species of large red ants, hispanized to Antique for kinaray-a. apayaw … “negotiable river” basi balan … or basilan for magnetic iron referring to the rich iron ore deposits batan … word for the land bridge circling a bay, now referred as Bataan, batan … also referred to cluster of islands called as Ivatan or from batan batang … in reference to the trunks of logged trees in kalumpang river, other names include bombom … or balayan and kumintang, now part of a city known today as batangas bingit … hispanized to bengget or benguet, the native word for lake deposit, swampy area like La Trinidad Valley;
kankanaey … a word for either “edge” bilid … or bilir which meant “the corner or edge of a boat” of the waray… also meant grass used in weaving mats, the rootword of Bilira buhol … also pronounced bo-ol, site of the sanduguan and derived from small thorny tree with branches that entwine which means extreme unity of the natives bukidnon … people of the mountain, referring to the indigenous tribes in mindanaw burakan … hispanized to Bulacan referring to marshy place of cotton trees, or a muddy place kabikulan … an old forgotten province or lalawigan in the southern part of luzon iloko … lalawigan in the northern part of luzon katagayan … place abundant with tagay trees of Ibanag, in reference to the tall, abundant hardwoods cagayan … karayan … or long river for Ilocanos. kalilaya … ancient lalawigan or province in eastern luzon that was reduced by the spaniards caliraya … derived by the spaniards from ancient kalilaya
kamalig … word camarin is the term used instead by the Spaniards to refer to the boat sheds kamalig … shady hay stalks or places or place for rest kamanigin … corrupted by colonizers as Camiguin or Camaniguin, manobos … meaning “to climb” referring to the tall mountains of the island. kapid or kapis … the translucent shells that come from bivalve pearl oysters katanduan … tando trees referring to the abundance of such trees in the island catanduanes … derived from tagalog word katanduan kumintang … ancient tribes of matriarchal clans in the old lalawigan of Batangas kawid, kalabit or kabit …. “hook” in reference to the small hook-shaped peninsula jutting into manila bay.. or “joined, connected or attached referring to the peninsula’s topographical relation to the mainland, now known as Cavite kuyo … katutubong hayop sa isang maliit na pulo sa karagatan ng sulu …
Cuyo … pangalang ibinansag ng mga kastila sa pulo, na ang kahulugan ay genie pig sa ingles na isang uri ng daga sugbu …. hispanised as Cebu or “to walk on shallow waters” referring to the shallows through which one had to wade in order to reach dry land from the port … also known to the foreigners as Zubu and Çubu. kutang-bato or kuta watu … for “stone fort”, now known as Cotabato referring to an actual stone fort that stood on Tantawan Hill a dabu, obo or dawo … a place beyond the high grounds, other sources also claim that this word was used by the Obo to refer to what is now called the davao river himar-us, himares or himaras … renamed by the spaniards as Guimaras ipugo … people of the hills or of the earth, referring to the ethnic Ifugao by the migrants and the rice handed to them by the god Matungulan, according to myth. ilook … ilokano for “of the coves/bays,” referring to the lowland inhabitants of the northwest coast of luzon that lusong in tagalog, which is dotted with numerous bays and coves, hispanised to yoco or plural form ylocos, later Ilocos became prevalent; the ancient name of the province irong-irong … referring to the nose-like shape of the delta formed by what are now called the Iloilo and Salog Rivers on which the settlement of hiligaynon thrived. kalinga, kalingga or kaylinga kalingga … the indigenous gadang or ibanag’s real meaning for charity or “taking good care” that became prevalent as “headhunters” of the mountains along chico river, or a term used by neighboring tribes for “enemy,” pertaining to this ethnic group which was ferociously against roman christianization. Kalinga is actually an exonym, a name given by their enemies.
- lawang babaye or bai … hispanized to Laguna for “lake of bay,” or “lagoon,” referring to the large body of freshwater
- danaw or ranaw … hispanicized name is Lanao for “lake,” referring to the lake which lies in the center of the plateau that comprised most of the territory ira ete or ila ete … known now as Leyte, hispanicized corruption of the phrase ila ete or ira ete ila Ete or ira Ete, meaning “belonging to Ete” or good man, is theorized to be the birthname of Bankaw, who led an unsuccessful revolt in the town of carigara in 1621.
mabunga … means “prolific”, an ancient kingdom in luzon that was an island of gold, a large territory in katagalugan that was later on to be known as lalawigan … no more traces of the forgotten kingdom except the extant barangays bearing the name mabunga in gapan, nueva ecija; gumaca, quezon; camalig, albay; baungon, bukidnon; rosario, batangas; bansalan, davao; barangay in mandaluyong and pasig, or obscure places like baungon, fuga, dalupire, calayan, babuyan, sabtang, batan, itbayat, siayan, or iyami maging danaw … hispanized to Maguindanao for “that which has suffered inundation,”referring to the flood plains of central Mindanao that are seasonally inundated by the mindanao river where much of the province’s territory is located. malindig or malindug … for “tall and elegant”, referring to the tallest mountain peaks of the island … known in variant hispanic names of Malindic, Malinduc, Marinduc and now popular Marinduque masabat or masbat … “to meet along the way” referring to the strategic position of a town that bears the present name Masbate, as well as the island named after it minolo or mintolo … n ative word mindoro island, 18th century tagalog document still referred to the island as Minolo. One origin of the name, mina de oro for “gold mine” was the result of the spaniards giving meaning to a phrase for their easy recognition despite the fact that no major gold-mining industry existed or exists in the island kuyamis or misa-misa … for a variety of sweet coconut that used to be the food staple of the natives or a phrase that welcome priests or babaylan that visited the area to celebrate mass in Misamis. buglas … spanish name is negros for “blacks” referring to the dark-skinned negritos that inhabited the island palawan or perawan … for “virgin land”, also palagua or paragwa, erroneously etymologized as “umbrella” or “sweet water” in spanish, indigenous meaning of palawan is “big island”, and palau or palaw is a small island pampang or pangpang … old tagalog word for “river bank,” referring to the densely populated area on the northern shores of manila bay where the tagalog natives of saba first settled upon their return and were given more permanent settlement on the banks of the delta of what is now called the pampanga river … pampanga is derived from ancient baybayin that was pangpang ng pinga asisnan ng pinga … hispanic vocalization turned the name to panga-asinan or pangasinan to pang-gasinan for “place where salt is made,” referring to the coastal region of the agno river plain which had an extensive thriving salt-making industry, even in pre-colonial times. lomlom or donblom … meaning “dark,” or “shady” or in tagalog word “lilim” in reference to the shades of once-thick forests of the island we now call as Romblon. The present form of the name is spanish corruption of the word. samal … Zamal to the spaniards, is an indigenous term formerly used to refer to the people that inhabited the island. It also referred to Malay word samar which means “disguised,” “dim,” “vague,” or “obscure.” sarang(an)ini … meaning “this is our home,” or literally, “this is our nest, referring to Sarangani Island. Early invaders also gave the name Sarangã. sibug-ay … for “to walk backwards or withdraw in numbers,” from the root word sibug with the suffix -ay denoting reciprocity or action by many, perhaps in reference to the tidal movement in the bay or river that now bear the name. The province takes part of its name from these two geographical features, that was translated by people from the western part of the world as zamboanga
“it’s si kihod … “it’s Kihod,” referring to a former ruler of the island. “Kihod” actually means “low tide” in Sugbu, later hispanized to Siquijor sogsogon … meaning “to continuously follow a course, such as a trail or a river … a different meaning of the verb defines it as “to avoid a river, lake or sea,” in reference to the route one needs to take in order to reach what is now the town named as sorsogon
sulug, sulug or sulu … for “ocean current,” a general name applied to the home island of the Tausug … hispanized to Jolo, similar to the spanish pronunciation for jabón as sabon and reloj as relos. suligan … derived from native word for “where there is sulig,” a species of fish that may have been abundant in the river now called Surigao or the adjacent sea. Also known as surugu, “paradise for the pure and righteous, for the manobo tanglar or matarlak … lemon grass, talahib or kugon of the natives … lately, the name became popular as Tarlac
taytay … hagdang tulay na gustong marating ng mga katutubong taga-ilog, o dugtong na mga daanan ng kalupaan jawi-jawi …. old malay for Sinama for “very far,” in reference to the island’s or the island group’s position in relation to other pre-colonial period. Early spaniards also gave the name Tavi-Tavi or Tavitavi, corruption of tawid-tawid to criss-cross the sea,” in reference to the necessary way of traveling between the numerous inhabited islands of the island group or Tawi-Tawi. sambal or sambali … derived from the word “samba” or to worship before the colonization period … pluralized by the spaniards as Zambales samboangan … sinama for “anchorage,” or literally, “place of mooring poles”, now called Zamboanga referring to the settlement and port town at the southern tip of Mindanao,