maski sino, pwedeng maging duktor kung sapat ang katalinuhan, kaalaman, katinuan, kahit albularyo, basurero o maski sinumang hampas-lupang walang diploma …
kaya lang, dapat na ang duktor ay isang paham, tinawag siyang guro ng mga tagalog at guru ng hindu, o isang titser at tagapagturo, hindi karaniwang tagaturo …
anyway, eto ang mga paliwanag nila:
what is a doctorate degree? a doctorate degree is the highest level of academic degree.
everyone is familiar with the medical doctor, who holds an M.D. (medical doctorate), yet anyone can earn a doctorate in almost any subject area like psychology, physiology, dentistry, chemistry, theology, naturopathy, and so on and so forth.
typically a doctorate degree takes four years to complete, post-bachelor’s degree. If you already hold a master’s degree, you may be able to complete a doctorate in the same subject area with only three years of additional full-time study.
four-year doctorate will require about 90 to 120 semester credits or 30 to 40 college courses.
the length and credits of doctorate programs can vary with some requiring a research thesis to be completed, while some can be designed as “practitioner’s degrees” in online doctorate schools
there are fewer doctorate degrees offered online than any other type of degree because market demand is very low as such tend to be in areas that require doctorates for licensing, like teaching or psychology.
A doctorate is an academic degree or professional degree that, in most countries, qualifies the holder to teach at the university level in the specific field of his or her degree, or to work in a specific profession.
In some countries, doctorate program is more formal and complex than in some other systems.
The research doctorate is not awarded for the preliminary advanced study that leads to doctoral candidacy, but rather for successfully completing and defending the independent research presented in the form of the doctoral dissertation (thesis).
Several first-professional degrees use the term “doctor” in their title, such as the Juris Doctor and the US version of the Doctor of Medicine, but these degrees do not universally contain an independent research component or always require a dissertation (thesis) and should not be confused with PhD degrees or other research doctorates.
In fact many universities offer PhD followed by a professional doctorate degree or joint PhD. with the professional degree: e.g. Ph.D. in law after J.D. or equivalent in physical therapy after DPT, in pharmacy after DPharm.
Often such professional degrees are refereed as entry level doctorate program and PhD as postprofessional doctorate.
In some countries, the highest degree in a given field is called a terminal degree, although this is by no means universal and such practice varies from country to country.
The term doctorate comes from the latin docere, meaning “to teach.”
The licentiate degree shortened from the full Latin title licentia docendi, means “teaching licence” was said to be rooted from the early church when the term “doctor” referred to the apostles, church fathers and other christian authorities who taught and interpreted the bible.
This right remained a bone of contention between the church authorities and the slowly emancipating universities, but was granted by the pope to the university of paris in 1213 where it became a universal license to teach.
However, while the licentia continued to hold a higher prestige than the bacheror’s degree (baccalaureus), it was ultimately reduced to an intermediate step to the magister and doctorate, both of which now became the exclusive qualification for teaching.
At the university, doctoral training was a form of apprenticeship to a guild. The traditional term of study before new teachers were admitted to the guild of “masters of arts” was seven years, which was the same as the term of apprenticeship for other occupations.
Originally the terms “master” and “doctor” were synonymous, but over time the doctorate came to be regarded as a higher qualification than the mater’s degree.
In the year 1785, complutense university became the first university to grant a doctorate to a female student and the university of cambridge did not grant a PhD. to a female student until the year 1926.
The usage and meaning of the doctorate has changed over time, and it has also been subject to regional variations.
In the early 20th century few academic staff or professors in english-speaking universities held doctorates, except for very senior scholars and those in holy orders.
Many universities also award honorary doctorates to individuals who have been deemed worthy of special recognition, either for scholarly work or for other contributions to the university or to society.
Research doctorates are awarded in recognition of academic research that is (at least in principle) publishable in a peer-refereed academic journal.
In many countries, earning a research doctorate also requires successful completion of a regimen of coursework beyond the masters level.
The best-known degree of this type, in the anglophone world, is that of doctor of philosophy awarded in many countries throughout the world.
Others include the degree of doctor of arts, doctor of education, various doctorates in engineering in the UK, Germany and US, and the nature-science degree of doctor rerum naturalium.
The doctor of theology, often stylized Th.D., is also a research doctorate, in theology, awarded by universities such as harvard divinity school and the university of toronto among many others.
The doctor of sacred theology is also a research doctorate in theology, but particular to catholic pontifical universities and faculties.
Others include the doctor of science and doctor of letter degrees found in the UK, Ireland and some Commonwealth countries, and the traditional doctorates in denmark and norway.
In sweden, a title roughly corresponding to the habilitation is docent that was also commonly used in poland but as of 2005 was changed to a formal doktor habilitowany degree.
Higher doctorates are often also awarded honoris cause when a university wishes to formally recognize an individual’s achievements and contributions to a particular field.
Professional doctorates are awarded in certain fields closely aligned with a particular profession such as doctor of medicine, doctor of osteopathic medicine, doctor of optometry, doctor of chiropractic, doctor of pharmacy, doctor of psychology, doctor of nursing practice, doctor of dental surgery, doctor of dental medicine, juris doctor and doctor of ministry.
Among others, these include the degrees of doctor of business administration, doctor of strategic leadership, doctor of public administration, doctor of social work, doctor of biblical studies, doctor of law and policy, doctor of practical theology, doctor of professional studies, including doctor of education.
When a university wishes to formally recognize an individual’s contributions to a particular field or philanthropic efforts, it may choose to grant a doctoral degree honoris causa, waiving the usual formal requirements for bestowal of the degree.
There are universities that do not award honorary degrees such as cornell university, the university of virginia, the california institute of technology and massachusetts institute of technology.
In modern times, the status of professor is awarded as a recognition of sustained academic excellence, equivalent in standing to an honorary doctorate, but this is not a degree per se.
Professor was sometimes awarded as a degree such as sacrae theologiae professor as awarded by the pontofical university. This is now titled sacrae theologiae doctor (STD) in keeping with usual modern practices.
In the ancient ceremony of bestowing complutense’s doctoral biretta, the student must write his thesis presenting a new discovery or original contribution to Science. If approved, the study will be presented to a panel of 5 distinguished scholars to challenge the candidate with questions on his research.
Four marks used to be granted: Unsatisfactory (Suspenso), Pass (Aprobado), Remarkable (Notable), “Cum laude” (Sobresaliente), and “Summa cum laude” (Sobresaliente Cum Laude).
Those Doctors granted their degree “Summa Cum Laude” were allowed to apply for an “Extraordinary Award”.
Complutense university was the sole university in spain authorised to confer the doctor degree on any scholar that was extended to the university of salamanca later on. In 1970, the right was extended to all Spanish universities, ending the monopoly of complutense university over this distinction.
Doctor of divinity historically ranked highest, theology being the senior faculty in the medieval universities. The degree of doctor of canon law was next in the order of precedence,
Some universities, in order to differentiate between honorary and substantive doctorates, have introduced the degree of doctor of the university to reserve the higher doctorates for formal academic research.
…. and many other titles of blah blah blah blah blah blah blah of the very popular western education.