191st blog … ang logos daw ng mga salitang endonyms at exonyms ni pinga … parasapinga!

ang sumang batanggas, bow!

siwana, siwawa siwanay, siwaway … prepreho lang yan, juana pinga!!
ginutom ako nisuman ng batang gash!

… isang nag-aahente sa lupa na nakausap ko ang nagtangkang itama ang pagtatas ko sa nakasulat na salitang  “valais”, sabi niya sa tonong hindi tagalog: frinch wurd puyan … valis an tama …

sagot konaman, ang lakas ng loob mo, alam kong valis pero binasa ko lang ang nakasulat, nasa pasig ako at diako frinch, tagalog pries lang ako, ikaw patatas, anong kamote ka ba? …

tanong ko noon sa isang katulad nya, alam moba ang alamat ng tray sibinti at traysi binti? hala ano?   alang kwenta kung  pugi kaman o priti, kung bobo kanaman, baog ka pa ring tulad ng marami, o ano? … sabay ngiting-kabayo sakanya …

… tatasin mo nga ang francois, please! isama mo na rin ang petitmonde … at ang diego, saan galing ang diego, sa jaime, sa james o sa tiago? …

tama ba ang manuel? manwel? o manoel?!  baybayin mo nga ang juan, jose, julia … cge! eto pa isa, isulat mo ang tu le dyur!

… sinabi ko rin na pwedeng german din ang valis, pedeng tagalog din …   alam moba kung pano at bakit nagkaroon ng salitang valais? …

parang kaiskwela kong taga-pateros na natira sa america, tinuruan ako na ang tama raw ay los anjeles para sa los angeles …

alam kaya niya kung alin ang totoo o tama sa kabi, kawi at kavi, nasarapang magturo ang palakang bundat sa turong palalo,  heheheh! parang taga arkinsoh, hehehe!

… tinawanan ko lang siya at sinabihang wala syang magagawa at wala syang pakialam, kase tagalog ako, markano kaw? … at inulit, ikaw ba talagang markano?

alam mo at alam kong kastila ang los angheles o latin pa nga, pero kung markano ka talaga, eh di tama ka sa los angjeles mo, pero huwag mokong maliin …

… sabay tawa nanaman, heheheh! kaya naman, ako ngayon ang magtuturo …

ang bigkas ng salita, dipende sa dila ng bawat tao at tiyak na magkakaiba, edi lalo na kung isusulat pa  … iba ang pagsulat ng mga tribo ng aprikano sa mga markano, lalong iba rin ang sa yuropa …

kaya nga mas gamay ko ang pamantayang tagalog sa asya na kung ano ang bigkas siyang sulat, kung ano ang bigkas siyang sulat, kung ano ang bigkas siyang sulat, kung ano ang bigkas siyang sulat …

o, ano naintindihan mo na?  eh pano nga kung magkabaligtad, kung ano ang sulat siyang bigkas, pano ka na?

… when words from a relatively phonetically flexible language, such as english, get imported into a chinese language, or vice versa, there is usually a replication of the sound of the original language.

… melliflous words such as “italy” have little problem adapting to the sound palette of chinese languages, but understandably, more complicated phonemes often lose many syllables or sounds when transferred.

… sometimes the original name, the endonym, is abandoned altogether to opt for the concise “beautiful country” as its exonym for “america”.

… endonyms and exonyms have curious relationships, but just as often, they have no relationship at all.

… the country commonly known today as china is referred to as zunggwok, and no chinese ever used the term “china” to refer to themselves.

… so where did the term come from? and why do we call guangzhou “canton”?

… the origin of the name is possibly sanskrit word cina which was a generic term for “the east”. the word first appeared in the classic indian work arthaśāstra by kautilīya, dated to about 300 BCE.

… ancient southern polity yelang which existed from third century BCE until its absorption into the northern han empire in the first century CE, corroborates this conclusion.

… yelang was situated south of modern-day sichuan, with its capital located somewhere in the western part of today’s guizhou province …

… populated by the yi or lolo people, whose indigenous name for the polity was “zhina” (ʐina), very similar to the word “china” used today, or more than two millenia later.

… the earliest western use of a term related to the english “china” is the greek thinai, which appeared in “the voyage around the erythraean sea” …

… compiled between 80 and 89 CE, around the same time the yelang polity was losing its sovereignty, and later ptolemy refers to the same area with the name sinai.

… variants also include china (English, German, Portuguese, Dutch and Spanish); chine (French); chin (Persian); cin (Turkish); kina (Swedish, Norwegian); chiny (Polish); Čína (Czech), kiina (Finnish); cheen (Hindi), kína (Hungarian), and in tagalog, its intsik.

… genetically unrelated to but geographically proximal to chinese are similar terms as Chūgoku (Japanese); Jungguk (Korean); Trung Quốc (Vietnamese), all of which derive their pronunciation from the Han characters anyways.

… just like japan, a name given from somewhere else, yet the natives call themselves as nippon or nihhon or nippongo or nihhonggo, while the tagalog call them simply as hapon …

… similar to how the natives or people from china are called by the inhabitants of manila as “intsik” since time immemorial.

… as for “canton” — the story is not nearly as dramatic as the entry of “china” into the english language.

the propensity for destroying pronunciation by english-speakers could have muddled the origin of the name “canton”.

nevertheless, some sectors claim that “canton” was derived by the english from a portuguese mistake. they were the first europeans to arrive in guangzhou, and probably confused the chinese “guangdong” for the name of the city, and subsequently pronounced the name of the city in portuguese as “cantão”.

the culprit could be the tilde over a vowel in nasalized portuguese with a slight “n” or “ng” sound that incidentally produced with the vowel, so the portuguese name is actually quite similar to both the english and chinese.

the probable mistake is the reason why and how we know the city guangzhou as canton today.

“china” could have come from the sanskrit cīna, which was likely influenced by the yi ʐina and although yi is a sino-tibetan language although they are very distantly related.

“canton” may not be a mispronunciation from the chinese guangdong as some quarters say that it is a mis-attribution of portuguese explorers to guangzhou.

it is said that every word in every language is a mini-history, and even the humble name “canton” has a story to tell, similar to “magpa-canton ka naman dyan” of the tagalog.

language preservation must become one of humanity’s highest priorities …
at eto pa ang isa in landayan, san pedro, laguna, some people have different references to god they called “Lolo Uweng” whom they consider as god …

for me  uweng is short for manuel, for manwel or manoel,  for reverence to our tagalog anitos, and they said that lolo evolved from lelong, a tagalog endearment to a grandfather or an old man to whom the natives come and draw water from a well for healing and quenching.

the ambience of celebration to their god in landayan is similar to that of quiapo which was actually kuyapo or baclaran or a place of catching fish, definitely not a place of the bltb which the catholics are continually suppressing but are failing until today, to the extend of calling the tagalogs as pagans …

… precisely, this is the reason why this tagalog pagan from luzon persists in using his own indigenous logos wherever he is,  in order to preserve a humble but true heritage of an ancient race sa pulo ng ginto, anong say nyo!?! …

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