para kay wanay!
at lahat ng aking mga ampong aso, basahin nyoto! ….
Ferdinand Marcos ruled the Philippines with an iron fist from 1966 to 1986.
Critics charged Marcos and his regime with crimes like corruption and nepotism. Marcos himself is said to have exaggerated his role in World War II. He also murdered a family political rival. He and his wife, also, were supposed to have saved from assasination the life of a catholic pope
So, how did this man stay in power? Marcos created an elaborate cult of personality. When that state-mandated adulation proved sufficient for him to maintain control, the president declared martial law.
On September 11, 1917, Josefa Edralin gave birth to a son in the village of Sarrat, on the island of Luzon, the Philippines. The boy was named Ferdinand Edralin Marcos.
Persistent rumors say that Ferdinand’s biological father was a man named Ferdinand Chua, who served as his godfather. Officially, however, Josefa’s husband, Mariano Marcos, was the child’s father.
Young Ferdinand Marcos grew up in a privileged milieu. He excelled at school, and took an eager interest in martial skills such as boxing and shooting. Marcos attended school in Manila.
His godfather, Ferdinand Chua, may have helped to pay for his educational expenses. In fact, marcos continued his studies while in prison, and even passed the bar exam with flying colors from his cell.
Mariano Marcos, his dad, ran for a seat on the National Assembly in 1935, but was defeated for the second time by Julio Nalundasan. For the family, Julio was the stumbling block for their political ambition.
Exactly on September 20, 1935, Nalundasan was shot dead at his home by a sniper’s shot from a .22-caliber rifle. Immediately, Mariano’s 18-year-old son Ferdinand was the main and only suspect in the killing of Nalundasan, the political rival who defeated Mariano in two elections.
The young law student was indicted for the killing, and convicted by a district court in November of 1939. He appealed to the Supreme Court of the Philippines in 1940. Representing himself, the young man managed to get his conviction overturned despite strong evidence of his guilt.
His rumored father, Ferdinand Chua, was a judge with political power to influence the outcome of the case. The supreme court, under chief justice jose laurel, overturned the lower court verdict and set Ferdinand Marcos free.
So, without jose laurel, the father of another laurel who subsequently became a vice-president, ferdinand marcos would not have been a president.
At the outbreak of World War II, Ferdinand Marcos was practicing law in Manila. He soon joined the Filipino Army, and fought against the Japanese invasion as a combat intelligence officer in the 21st Infantry Division.
Marcos saw action in the three-month-long Battle of Bataan, in which the Allied forces lost Luzon to the Japanese. He survived the Bataan Death March, a week-long ordeal that killed about 1/4 of the prisoners of war.
Marcos escaped the prison camp and joined the resistance. He later claimed to have been a guerrilla leader, but that claim has been disputed.
Detractors say that Marcos spent the early post-war period filing false compensation claims for wartime damages with the United States government, such as a claim for almost $600,000 for 2,000 imaginary cattle of Mariano Marcos.
Marcos also became infamous for the true story of the golden buddha that was originally recovered by a Baguio treasure hunter who was subsequently arrested by Marcos’ soldiers.
In any case, Ferdinand Marcos certainly did serve as a special assistant to the first president of the newly-independent Republic of the Philippines, Manuel Roxas, in 1946-47.
He also served in the House of Representatives from 1949 to 1959 and the Senate from 1963 to 1965 as a member of Roxas’ Liberal Party. In 1965, Marcos hoped to secure the Liberal Party nomination for the presidency.
The sitting president, Diosdado Macapagal, the father of Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo who also became president, had promised to step aside, but reneged and ran again.
So, Marcos resigned from the Liberal Party and joined the Nationalist party. He won the election, became president and was sworn in on December 30, 1965.
Marcos promised economic development, improved infrastructure, and good government for the people of the. He also pledged to help the US in the Vietnam War, sending more than 10,000 Filipino soldiers to fight.
Ferdinand Marcos was the first president to be reelected to a second term in the Philippines. Whether his reelection was rigged is a subject of debate.
In any case, he consolidated his hold on power by developing a cult of personality, like those of Stalin, Mao, or Niyazov of Turkmenistan; or even the likes of adolf hitler and idi amin.
Marcos required every business and classroom in the country to display his official presidential portrait. He also posted giant billboards bearing propagandistic messages across the country. All these were copied by subsequent presidents.
A wise gallivanting man of politics, Marcos had married the former beauty queen Imelda Romualdez in 1954 adding her glamour to his popularity, who managed to rename a large portion of Bulacan province where Angat dam sits, in honor of Imelda’s mother, Remedios Trinidad.
The new town in this Sierra Madre mountains could very well be a depository or place where the stolen wealth and golds of the Magdiwang were hidden, and which the Marcos family managed to conceal
Within weeks of his reelection, Marcos faced violent public protests against his rule by students and other citizens. Students demanded educational reforms; they even commandeered a fire truck and crashed it into the Presidential Palace in 1970.
The Filipino Communist Party reemerged as a threat. Muslim separatist movement in the south urged cessation. President Marcos responded to all of these threats by declaring martial law on September 21, 1972.
He suspended habeas corpus, imposed a curfew and jailed opponents like the ambitious Benigno “Ninoy” Aquino. Marcos also used his political clout and very smart lawyering against the cojuanco’s, owners of Hacienda Luisita, whose sister was Corazon, the wife of ninoy and the mother of the incumbent president, noynoy.
Under martial law, Ferdinand Marcos took extraordinary powers for himself. He used the country’s military as a weapon against his political enemies, displaying a typically ruthless approach to opposition. Marcos also awarded a huge number of government posts to his and Imelda’s relatives.
Imelda herself was a member of Parliament (1978-84); Governor of Manila (1976-86); and Minister of Human Settlements (1978-86). Marcos called parliamentary elections on April 7, 1978.
None of the members of jailed former Senator Benigno Aquino’s LABAN party won their races. Election monitors cited widespread vote-buying by Marcos loyalists.
In preparation for Pope John Paul II’s visit, Marcos lifted martial law on January 17, 1981. Nonetheless, Marcos pushed through legislative and Constitutional reforms to ensure that he would retain all of his extended powers. It was purely a cosmetic change.
For the first time in 12 years, the Philippines held a presidential election on June 16, 1981. Marcos ran against two opponents: Alejo Santos of the Nacionalista Party, and Bartolome Cabangbang of the Federal Party.
This was probably the time when Ferdinand extended his womanizing adventures with a number of foreign and local actresses, two were an aspiring american named dovie beams and a visayan starlet named rosemarie, a sister of an established actress who became the wife of fernando poe who also ran for philippine presidency.
The visayan lass became pregnant, according to rumors, bore a child who became known as grace who was elected todate as senator of the philippines.
LABAN and Unido both boycotted the election. In proper dictator fashion, Marcos received 88% of the vote. He took the opportunity in his inauguration ceremony to note that he would like the job of “Eternal President.”
Opposition leader Benigno Aquino was released in 1980 after nearly 8 years in prison. He went into exile in the United States.
In August of 1983, Aquino returned to the Philippines. Upon arrival, he was hustled off the plane, and shot dead on the runway at the Manila Airport by a man in a military uniform.
The government claimed that Rolando Galman was the assassin; Galman was immediately killed by airport security.
Marcos was ill at the time, recovering from a kidney transplant. Imelda may have ordered Aquino’s killing, which sparked massive protests.
August 13, 1985 was the beginning of the end for Marcos. Fifty-six members of Parliament called for his impeachment for graft, corruption, and other high crimes.
Marcos called a new election for 1986. His opponent was Corazon Aquino, the widow of Benigno. Marcos claimed a 1.6 million vote victory, but observers found a 800,000 win by Aquino.
A “People Power” movement quickly developed, driving the Marcoses into exile in Hawaii, and affirming Aquino’s election.
The Marcoses had embezzled billions of dollars from the Philippines. Imelda famously left over 2,500 pairs of shoes in her closet and collections of diamonds and other expensive gems when she fled Manila.
Ferdinand Marcos died of multiple organ failure in Honolulu on September 28, 1989. He left behind a reputation as one of the most corrupt and ruthless leaders in modern Asia.
at si hitler naman!
Adolf Hitler was the leader of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945. He initiated World War II and oversaw fascist policies that resulted in millions of deaths. “Those who want to live, let them fight, and those who do not want to fight in this world of eternal struggle do not deserve to live.”
Adolf Hitler was leader of the Nazi Party and became Chancellor of Germany in 1933. As leader of the Third Reich, he invaded Poland, which started World War II. He orchestrated the Holocaust, which resulted in the death of 6 million Jews.
Born in Austria in 1889, Adolf Hitler rose to power in German politics as leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party, also known as the Nazi Party. Hitler was chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and served as dictator from 1934 to 1945. His policies precipitated World War II and the Holocaust.
Hitler committed suicide with wife Eva Braun on April 30, 1945, in his Berlin bunker. Dictator Adolf Hitler was born in Branau am Inn, Austria, on April 20, 1889, and was the fourth of six children born to Alois Hitler and Klara Polzl. When Hitler was 3 years old, the family moved from Austria to Germany.
As a child, Hitler clashed frequently with his father. Following the death of his younger brother, Edmund, in 1900, he became detached and introverted. His father did not approve of his interest in fine art rather than business.
In addition to art, Hitler showed an early interest in German nationalism, rejecting the authority of Austria-Hungary. This nationalism would become the motivating force of Hitler’s life. Alois died suddenly in 1903.
Two years later, Adolf’s mother allowed her son to drop out of school. He moved to Vienna and worked as a casual laborer and a watercolor painter. Hitler applied to the Academy of Fine Arts twice, and was rejected both times.
Out of money, he moved into a homeless shelter, where he remained for several years.Hitler later pointed to these years as the time when he first cultivated his anti-Semitism, though there is some debate about this account.
At the outbreak of World War I, Hitler applied to serve in the German army. He was accepted in August 1914, though he was still an Austrian citizen. Although he spent much of his time away from the front lines, Hitler was present at a number of significant battles and was wounded at the Somme.
He was decorated for bravery, receiving the Iron Cross First Class and the Black Wound Badge. Hitler became embittered over the collapse of the war effort. The experience reinforced his passionate German patriotism, and he was shocked by Germany’s surrender in 1918. Like other German nationalists, he believed that the German army had been betrayed by civilian leaders and Marxists.
He found the Treaty of Versailles degrading, particularly the demilitarization of the Rhineland and the stipulation that Germany accept responsibility for starting the war.
After World War I, Hitler returned to Munich and continued to work for the military as an intelligence officer. While monitoring the activities of the German Workers’ Party (DAP), Hitler adopted many of the anti-Semitic, nationalist and anti-Marxist ideas of DAP founder Anton Drexler.
Drexler invited Hitler to join the DAP, which he did in 1919. increase its appeal, the DAP changed its name to the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP). Hitler personally designed the party banner, featuring a swastika in a white circle on a red background. Hitler soon gained notoriety for his vitriolic speeches against the Treaty of Versailles, rival politicians, Marxists and Jews.
In 1921, Hitler replaced Drexler as NSDAP party chairman. Hitler’s vitriolic beer-hall speeches began attracting regular audiences. Early followers included army captain Ernst Rohm, the head of the Nazi paramilitary organization, the Sturmabteilung (SA), which protected meetings and frequently attacked political opponents.
On November 8, 1923, Hitler and the SA stormed a public meeting of 3,000 people at a large beer hall in Munich. Hitler announced that the national revolution had begun and declared the formation of a new government.
After a short struggle including 20 deaths, the coup, known as the “Beer Hall Putsch,” failed. Hitler was arrested three days later and tried for high treason. He served a year in prison, during which time he dictated most of the first volume of Mein Kampf (“My Struggle”) to his deputy, Rudolf Hess.
The book laid out Hitler’s plans for transforming German society into one based on race. The Great Depression in Germany provided a political opportunity for Hitler. Germans were ambivalent to the parliamentary republic and increasingly open to extremist options.
In 1932, Hitler ran against Paul von Hindenburg for the presidency. Hitler came in second in both rounds of the election, garnering more than 35 percent of the vote in the final election. The election established Hitler as a strong force in German politics.
Hindenburg reluctantly agreed to appoint Hitler as chancellor in order to promote political balance. Hitler used his position as chancellor to form a de facto legal dictatorship. The Reichtag Fire Decree, announced after a suspicious fire at the Reichtag, suspended basic rights and allowed detention without trial.
Hitler also engineered the passage of the Enabling Act, which gave his cabinet full legislative powers for a period of four years and allowed deviations from the constitution. Having achieved full control over the legislative and executive branches of government, Hitler and his political allies embarked on a systematic suppression of the remaining political opposition.
By the end of June, the other parties had been intimidated into disbanding.On July 14, 1933, Hitler’s Nazi Party was declared the only legal political party in Germany. Military opposition was also punished. The demands of the SA for more political and military power led to the Night of the Long Knives, which took place from June 30 to July 2, 1934.
Ernst Röhm and other SA leaders, along with a number of Hitler’s political enemies, were rounded up and shot. The day before Hindenburg’s death in August 1934, the cabinet had enacted a law abolishing the office of president and combining its powers with those of the chancellor. Hitler thus became head of state as well as head of government, and was formally named as leader and chancellor.
As head of state, Hitler became supreme commander of the armed forces. He began to mobilize for war. Germany withdrew from the League of Nations, and Hitler announced a massive expansion of Germany’s armed forces. The Nazi regime also included social reform measures. Hitler promoted anti-smoking campaigns across the country. These campaigns stemmed from Hitler’s self-imposed dietary restrictions, which included abstinence from alcohol and meat.
At dinners, Hitler sometimes told graphic stories about the slaughter of animals in an effort to shame his fellow diners. He encouraged all Germans to keep their bodies pure of any intoxicating or unclean substance. A main Nazi concept was the notion of racial hygiene.
New laws banned marriage between non-Jewish and Jewish Germans, and deprived “non-Aryans” of the benefits of German citizenship. Hitler’s early eugenic policies targeted children with physical and developmental disabilities, and later authorized a euthanasia program for disabled adults.
The Holocaust was also conducted under the auspices of racial hygiene. Between 1939 and 1945, Nazis and their collaborators were responsible for the deaths of 11 million to 14 million people, including about 6 million Jews, representing two-thirds of the Jewish population in Europe.Deaths took place in concentration and extermination camps and through mass executions.
Other persecuted groups included Poles, communists, homosexuals, Jehovah’s Witnesses and trade unionists, among others. Hitler probably never visited the concentration camps and did not speak publicly about the killings. In 1938, Hitler, along with several other European leaders, signed the Munich Agreement.
The treaty ceded the Sudetenland districts to Germany, reversing part of the Versailles Treaty. As a result of the summit, Hitler was named Time magazine’s Man of the Year for 1938. This diplomatic win only whetted his appetite for a renewed German dominance.
On September 1, Germany invaded Poland. In response, Britain and France declared war on Germany.Hitler escalated his activities in 1940, invading Scandinavia as well as France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Belgium. Hitler ordered bombing raids on the United Kingdom, with the goal of invasion.
Germany’s formal alliance with Japan and Italy, known collectively as the Axis powers, was signed to deter the United States from supporting and protecting the British.On June 22, 1941, Hitler violated a non-aggression pact with Joseph Stalin, sending 3 million German troops into the Soviet Union. The invading force seized a huge area before the German advance was stopped outside Moscow in December 1941.
On December 7, Japan attacked Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. Hitler was now at war against a coalition that included the world’s largest empire (Britain), the world’s greatest financial power (the U.S.) and the world’s largest army (the Soviet Union).Facing these odds, Hitler’s military judgment became increasingly erratic. Germany’s military and economic position deteriorated along with Hitler’s health. Germany and the Axis could not sustain Hitler’s aggressive and expansive war.
In late 1942, German forces failed to seize the Suez Canal. The German army also suffered defeats at the Battle of Stalingrad and the Battle of Kursk.On June 6, 1944, the Western Allied armies landed in northern France. As a result of these significant setbacks, many German officers concluded that defeat was inevitable and that Hitler’s denial would result in the destruction of the country.
Death and Legacy By early 1945, Hitler realized that Germany was going to lose the war. The Soviets had driven the German army back into Western Europe, and the Allies were advancing into Germany.
On April 29, 1945, Hitler married his girlfriend, Eva Braun, in a small civil ceremony in his Berlin bunker.Around this time, Hitler was informed of the assassination of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini. Afraid of falling into the hands of enemy troops, Hitler and Braun committed suicide the day after their wedding, on April 30, 1945. Their bodies were carried to the bombed-out garden behind the Reich Chancellery, where they were burned.
Berlin fell on May 2, 1945.Hitler’s political program had brought about a world war, leaving behind a devastated and impoverished Eastern and Central Europe, including Germany. His policies inflicted human suffering on an unprecedented scale and resulted in the death of an estimated 40 million people, including about 27 million in the Soviet Union.
Hitler’s defeat marked the end of a phase of European history dominated by Germany, and the defeat of fascism. A new ideological global conflict, the Cold War, emerged in the aftermath of World War II.
at si idi amin, pero dikona siya isasali dito para di masyadong madugo … heheheh!