276th blog … sachi, issey, jiro … britonbakayo o ingles?!?

New research reveals that Britain has invaded all but 22 countries in the world in its long and colorful history.

Every schoolboy used to know that at the height of the empire, almost a quarter of the atlas was colored pink,         showing the extent of British rule.

But that oft recited fact dramatically understates the remarkable global reach achieved by this country.

A new study has found that at various times the British have invaded almost 90 per cent of the countries around the globe.

The analysis of the histories of the almost 200 countries in the world found only 22 which have never experienced an invasion by the British.

Among this select group of nations are far-off destinations such as Guatemala, Tajikistan and the Marshall Islands, as well some slightly closer to home, such as Luxembourg.

The analysis is contained in a new book, “All the Countries We’ve Ever Invaded: And the Few We Never Got Round To” The author, has worked his way around the globe, through each country alphabetically, researching its history to establish whether, at any point, they have experienced an incursion by Britain.

Only a comparatively small proportion of the total in list of invaded states actually formed an official part of the empire.The remainder have been included because the British were found to have achieved some sort of military presence in the territory – however transitory – either through force, the threat of force, negotiation or payment.

Incursions by British pirates, privateers or armed explorers have also been included, provided they were operating with the approval of their government.

So, many countries which once formed part of the Spanish empire and seem to have little historical connection with the UK, such as Costa Rica, Ecuador and El Salvador, make the list because of the repeated raids they suffered from state-sanctioned British sailors.

Among some of the perhaps surprising entries on the list are:

Cuba, where in 1741 a force  stormed ashore at Guantánamo Bay and renamed it Cumberland Bay, before being forced to withdraw in the face of hostile locals and an outbreak of disease among his men.

Twenty one years later, Havana and a large part of the island fell to the British after a bloody siege, only to be handed back to the Spanish in 1763, along with another unlikely British possession, the Philippines, in exchange for Florida and Minorca.

Iceland, invaded in 1940 by the British after the neutral nation refused to enter the war on the Allies side. The invasion force, of 745 marines, met with strong protest from the Iceland government, but no resistance.

Vietnam, which has experienced repeated incursions by the British since the seventeenth century, most recent was from 1945 to 1946  in a campaign for control of the country against communists, in a war that has been overshadowed by later conflicts involving first the French and then Americans.

It is thought to be the first time such a list has been compiled.

Many were absolutely staggered seeing the total.  No other list  could match this, although the Americans had a later start and have been working hard on it in the twentieth century.

The only other nation which has achieved anything approaching the British total, is France – which also holds the unfortunate record for having endured the most British invasions.

In the case of Mongolia, for instance – one of the 22 nations “not invaded”, according to the book, it is possible that there could have been a British invasion, but could find no direct proof.

The country was caught up in the turmoil following the Russian Revolution, in which the British and other powers intervened.    Also, there is an evidence of a British military mission in Russia approximately 50 miles from the Mongolian border, but could not establish whether it got any closer.

The research covered the 192 other UN member states as well as the Vatican City and Kosovo, which are not member states, but are recognised by the UK government as independent states.

The earliest invasion launched from these islands was an incursion into Gaul – now France – at the end of the second century, that was defeated in 197 at Lyon.

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