353rd blog … masangkay, macario o guillermo, masangkay pa rin!

As commander-in-chief, Bonifacio supervised the planning of military strategies and the preparation of orders, manifests and decrees, adjudicated offenses against the nation, as well as mediated in political disputes.

He directed generals and positioned troops in the fronts. On the basis of command responsibility, all victories and defeats all over the archipelago during his term of office should be attributed to Bonifacio.

Haring Bayang Katagalugan (“Sovereign Nation of Katagalugan”, or “Sovereign Tagalog Nation”) – sometimes shortened into Haring Bayan (“Sovereign Nation”) of the katipunan.

Bonifacio is named as the president of the “Tagalog Republic” in an issue of the Spanish periodical La Ilustración Española y Americana published in February 1897 (“Andrés Bonifacio – Titulado “Presidente” de la República Tagala”).

Another name for Bonifacio’s government was Repúblika ng Katagalugan or Tagalog Republic.

Official letters and one appointment paper of Bonifacio addressed to Emilio Jacinto reveal Bonifacio’s various titles and designations, as follows:

President of the Supreme Council; Supreme President; President of the Sovereign Nation of Katagalugan / Sovereign Tagalog Nation; President of the Sovereign Nation, Founder of the Katipunan, Initiator of the Revolution; and, Office of the Supreme President, Government of the Revolution

A power struggle in Cavite in 1897 led to command of the revolution shifting to Emilio Aguinaldo at the Tejeros Convention, where a new government was formed. Bonifacio was executed after he refused to recognize the new government.

The aguinaldo-headed Philippine Republic or República Filipina) was falsely-claimed as the first philippine republic tha was actually established only in 1899 or two years after the original katipunan “republika ng katagalugan” of magdiwang.

This event started the “freaks” in the philippine history.

After a succession of revolutionary and dictatorial governments (e.g. the Tejeros government, the Biak-na-Bato Republic), the philippine republic of aguinaldo was recognized by under the sponsorship of the american government inspite the consternation of the katipunan loyalists.

GUILLERMO R. MASANGKAY (1867-1963) was one of them, a friend and adviser of Andres Bonifacio, a bosom friend who joined that underground society when he was only 17.

He was born on June 25, 1867 in Meisic, Tondo, Manila. His parents were Domingo Masangkay of Batangas and Victoria Rafael of Tanza, Cavite. He was the youngest of four children. Masangkay had no formal education. However, he had a strong intellectual drive.

Thus, although he was only a bangkero, or boatman, he became fluent in Spanish and deeply aware of the political and social conditions of his time.

He was plying his trade when he heard about a prominent young man in his neighborhood that he became friends with – Bonifacio. As they got to know each other well, they found that they had the same patriotic aspirations.

When Bonifacio founded the Katipunan on July 7, 1892 together with Ladislao Diwa and Teodoro Plata, he became one of its first members, along with Restituto Javier, Vicente Molina, Valentin Diaz, Briccio Pantas, Roman Basa, etc.

As his adviser, Bonifacio sought Masangkay for his approval in transforming the Katipunan into a revolutionary association. It was Masangkay whom he had designated to organize the Katipunan chapter in Cavite which was joined by aguinaldo later on.

In August 1896, after the Katipunan was discovered, Masangkay joined Bonifacio, Emilio Jacinto, and others in a clandestine meeting held on the 24th of that month at Apolonio Samson’s house in Caloocan.

Initially, the leaders of the movement quarreled over strategy and tactics, and many of its members questioned the wisdom of an open rebellion due to the lack of arms and logistical support.

However, after Bonifacio’s intense and convincing speech, everyone destroyed their cedulas to symbolize their defiance towards Spain and, together, raised the cry of “Revolt.”

Masangkay was with Bonifacio in April 1896 at the Bernardo Carpio Cave on Mt. Tapusi, San Mateo, Rizal. It was the site originally chosen for the start of the uprising, not Balintawak.

However, it was abandoned because of its remoteness from the town. Nonetheless, it was in there
that Bonifacio, Masangkay, and Emilio Jacinto planned the attack in Manila.

Newly appointed general, Masangkay was tasked by Bonifacio to lead one of the groups that assaulted the city.
As a revolutionary general, Masangkay figured prominently during the Filipino-American War.

His competence was demonstrated in the memorable battle against the American forces on Zapote Bridge in Las Piñas Rizal. During the initial day of the 72-hour battle, Masangkay and his troops were winning.

They eventually lost their advantage, however, to the superior arms of the enemy. Gravely injured in that battle, Masangkay was brought to San Juan de Dios Hospital for treatment.

After being confined there for three days, Masangkay, dressed as a woman, surreptitiously left the hospital and went into hiding.

The ideals of the true magdiwang of the katipunan were pursued relentlessly by general geronimo and general macario sakay up to the hills and mountains of sierra madre against the combined efforts of magdalo and the american forces.

With the restoration of peace, Masangkay returned home and was reunited with his wife, romana noriel of cavite, and their 12 children.

Since then, he lived a simple life, attending to the growing family business and his children’s education.
When the government decided to erect Bonifacio’s monument, Masangkay strongly supported the project and donated P10, 000 from his own funds.

Masangkay, also known as guillermo was born on June 25, 1867 and native of Meisic, Tondo, Manila and one of the first members of the Katipunan.

He died on May 30, 1963.


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