heteropaternal superfecundination and catch 22!
Heracles was the son of the affair Zeus had with the mortal woman Alcmene.
Zeus disguised himself as the husband of Alcmene and made love to her. The husband, Amphitryon, did return home early but later the same night from war and also made love to his wife, Alcmene …
Alcmene became pregnant, a case of heteropaternal superfecundation, where a woman carries twins sired by different fathers.
Heracles’ very existence as one of the sons proved at least one many illicit affairs of the Zeus, the greek god.
Hera, wife of Zeus, conspired against her husband’s mortal offspring with Alcmene, as revenge against the infidelities.
Heracles’ twin mortal brother was Iphicles, the son of Amphitryon and the father of Heracles’ charioteer Lolaus.
On the night the twins Heracles and Iphicles were to be born, Hera, knowing of her husband Zeus’ adultery, persuaded Zeus to swear an oath that the child born that night by Alcmene would become High King.
Hera did this knowing that while Heracles was to be born a descendant of Perseus, so too was Eurystheus, great-grandson of Zeus.
Once the oath was sworn, Hera hurried to Alcmene’s dwelling and slowed the birth of the twins Heracles and Iphicles by forcing Ilithyia, goddess of childbirth, to sit cross legged with her clothing tied in knots.
This caused the twins to be trapped in the womb. Meanwhile, Hera caused Eurystheus to br born prematurely ahead, making him High King in stead of Heracles.
She would have permanently delayed Heracles’ birth had she not been fooled by Galanthis, Alcmene’s servant, who lied to Ilithyia, saying that Alcmene had already delivered the baby.
Upon hearing this, she jumped in surprise, loosing the knots and inadvertently allowing Alcmene to give birth to Heracles and Iphicles.
Fearful of Hera’s revenge, Alcmene tried to expose the infant Heracles, but he was taken up and brought to Hera by his half-sister Athena, who played an important role as protectress of heroes.
Hera did not recognize Heracles and nursed him out of pity. Heracles suckled so strongly that he caused Hera pain, and she pushed him away.
Hera’s milk sprayed across the heavens and there formed the Milky Way.
But with divine milk, Heracles had acquired supernatural powers.
Athena brought the infant back to his mother, and he was subsequently raised by his parents.
The child was originally given the name Alcides by his parents; it was only later that he became known as Heracles in an unsuccessful attempt to mollify Hera.
Heracles and his twin Iphicles were just eight months old when Hera sent two giant snakes into the children’s chamber.
Iphicles cried from fear, but his brother grabbed a snake in each hand and strangled them. He was found by his nurse playing with them on his cot as if they were toys.
Astonished, Amphitryon sent for the seer Tiresias, who prophesied an unusual future for the boy, saying he would vanquish numerous monsters.
In another greek myth, Leda conceives four children: Helen of Troy, Clytemnestra, Castor and Pollux in the same night by two different men.
Two are children of Zeus, who comes to Leda disguised as a swan, and two are the children of Leda’s mortal husband, Tyndareus.
Which father which children varies widely among accounts that say the gemini twins Castor and Pollux are born of different fathers.
The heteropaternal superfecundation involved in this myth is especially unusual, because instead of giving birth to the children, Leda lays eggs that hatch them.
Catch-22 is a paradoxical situation that is inescapable due to contradictory rules, regulations, or procedures subjected to a person who has no control over them.
One connotation of the term is that the creators of the “catch-22” have created arbitrary rules in order to justify and conceal their own abuse of power.
In 1961, the term was introduced in a novel, Catch-22, about the absurd bureaucratic constraints on soldiers in World War II by an army psychiatrist who invokes “Catch 22”;
by requesting mental evaluation for insanity by demonstrating sanity in making the request and thus cannot be declared insane – hoping to be found not sane, thereby escape dangerous missions.
The term is applied to various loopholes and quirks of the military system, always with the implication that rules are inaccessible to and slanted against those lower in the hierarchy;
like the requirement to do anything the commanding officer orders whether these orders contradict orders from the officer’s superiors.
The title Catch 22 was chosen more or less for euphony which was originally Catch-18.
Anybody who deals with organizations understands the bureaucratic logic of Catch-22. It is also a “doublethink” that has become one of the best-recognized ways to describe the predicament of being trapped by contradictory rules.
If a person is excused from flying because of mental illness, that must be because he is both insane, and requests an evaluation;
If a person is insane, he should not realize that he is, and would have no reason to request an evaluation
Since an insane person would not request an evaluation, it follows that all people must either not be insane, or not request an evaluation.
Since all people must either not be insane, or not request an evaluation, it follows that no person is both insane and requests an evaluation/
Since a person may be excused from flying only if he is both insane and requests an evaluation, but no person can be both insane and request an evaluation, it follows that no person can be excused from flying for reasons of insanity.