The island of luzon was never in war with any people or government of other lands. Yet, the never-ending on-going and always recurring problems on incursions originating from beyond the western and southern seas seem to be its fate of existence.
Inspite of its proven cordial relations, genuine empathy and helpful mediation with places such as vietnam, korea, borneo and other southeast asian countries during wars, others do not cease in putting down the dignity of the river-dwellers or tagalog.
With the impending three hundred years of colonization by the spanish crown and roman catholic empire from europe which were all oblivious of the wealth of the island, the stories went on and on …
And until now, the chinese have not really nipped the bud of their obsession of owning or conquering our islands in the far east or south seas as they look at it.
All the ancient battles and wars in the tagalog lands were supposedly recorded but the records like the “sulat sa papel na tanso, pilak at ginto” were all thrown or taken away, even destroyed and therefore forgotten.
The taga-ilog who were all natives of luzon that was originally called katagalugan and “pulo ng ginto” had made rebellions in defense of their patrimony and religious beliefs.
The extant few records were biasedly written in the chronicles and books of the intruders themselves, mostly with omissions and additions, are indicated here.
l. Dagami or Lumad Revolt (1565-1567) against the colonialists in Mactan, an island whose inhabitants were in adherence with the katagalugan principles.
What was made prominent in the island was the the initial killing of magellan who most likely interfered or messed with the personal conflict of lapu-lapu and another visayan chieftain which occurred some four decades ago or more.
2. Lakandula and Soliman uprising in 1574 when conquistadores from europe used diplomatic means in dealing with tagalog natives in manila.
Instead of continuing their promised arrangement to support the missions of the visayan-muslims of dominating luzon that could not be done on their own in the past.
The two were originally from the the far south and their uprising occurred in the same year of limahong and sioco’s navy attack from china that faced defeat from local tagalog inhabitants led by agustin and martin pinga, not panga as continuously posted so wrongly due to ignorance of the tagalog authentic script.
The europeans reneged on their their blood-compact with the visayan muslims, and subsequently imposed their selfish kind of domination of luzon including the muslim-visayans.
The chinese from ming dynasty escaped on foot to the old province or lalawigan of iloko where they initially landed, while the two non-tagalogs were finally subdued by the conquistadores with their visayan-muslim, mexican, kapangpangan and chinese loyalist-cohorts.
Luzon then had their own indigenous names for the few lalawigan or land territories that the europeans ultimately divided and renamed into provincias.
Lalawigang mabunga, a kingdom in the more ancient time, was the authentic name of the larger manila that time, not nueva ecija, rizal nor laguna nor quezon that surrounds the sister-lakes of laguna and manila with cavite, bataan, tarlac, bulacan and pampanga that this present generation knows.
The land bridges were still a part of the earth during those forgotten times.
3. Pampanga revolt was an uprising in 1585 by some native Kapampangan leaders against the spaniards but the conspiracy was foiled after a kapangpangan woman married to a spanish soldier reported the plot to the authorities;
4. Tondo Conspiracy of 1587-1588 was a plan of the tagalog nobility of brothers Agustin and Martin Pinga with datus from Manila, Bulacan and Pampanga by brothers Agustin and Martin for a revolution of the katagalugan that etymologized the formation of the Magdiwang.
The kapangpangans spilled the secrecy of the conspiracy to the catholic church and a spanish soldier.
Literally, magdiwang meant “noble spirit” of pinga that was adhered to with all compassion by bonifacio’s katipunan in later decades of 1800’s.
5. The Cagayan and Dingras revolts of 1589 in ilocos norte against the tribute, locally known as buwis or ikapu. Ilocanos, Ibanags and other natives revolted against alleged abuses by the tax collectors, including the collection of high taxes;
6. The Magalat revolt was an uprising in 1596 in manila, where its leader was caught and returned to Cagayan. He soon controlled the countryside, and the Spanish eventually found themselves besieged. Magalat was assasinated by his own men.
7. The Igorot revolt that was short-lived as the spaniards with their mexican, kapangpangan and chinese soldiers made use of extreme measures and executed them quickly to dispel the revolt in the cordillera region.
8. Tagalog rebellion against sangley in 1603 concerning the chinese conspiracy with the spanish government – at least 30,000 intsik merchants were slaughtered during that time.
The surviving chinese fled to Wawa into the homes of their comrades in Guagua where the kapampangans exiled out of manila. The chinese called this in their history as the Luzon Tragedy.
9. The Tamblot religious uprising in 1621-1622 in the island of bohol, led by a babaylan or native priest, who urged his fellow boholanos to return to the old indigenous belief of their forefathers. Tamblot was executed and his head was severed on a pike to serve as a warning to the populace.
10. The Bancao Revolt was a religious uprising in support of a datu of carigara, leyte against spanish colonial rule. With a babaylan, or religious leader named Pagali, he built a temple for a diwata or local goddess for the anito of pinga, and encouraged the natives of the six towns to rise up similar to the Tamblot Uprising.
To suppress the rebellion, Bancao’s severed head was impaled on a bamboo stake and displayed to the public as a stern warning. One of his sons was also beheaded, and one babaylan was burned at the stake with three others executed by firing squad.
11. The Itneg or Mandaya tribe revolt was also a religious uprising led by Lanab and Alababan who were previously baptised as catholics against their will in northwestern Cagayan, now part of the landlocked province of Apayao.
Pigs were fed with the bodies of the dominican missionaries cut into pieces, then the natives started setting fire to the local churches that were transformed by the spaniards as their own. The Itnegs ended the killings in 1627 when the invaders stopped their pursuit.
12. Ladia was a Moro-Bornean kapangpangan and a self-claimed descendant of Lakandula who came to Malolos in 1643. He claimed to be the king of the tagalogs and rebelled against Spain.
13. In the town of Palapag today in Northern Samar, a Waray named sumuroy and his followers rose in arms on June 1, 1649 over the polo y servicio or forced labor system being undertaken in Samar.
14. The Maniago Revolt was an uprising in Pampanga during the 1660s against tribute, forced labor, and rice exploitation. For several months they worked and were not paid for their labor and for the rice purchased from them by spaniards who became the landlords.
15. Malong Revolt (1660-1661) – The Revolt of Malong in 1660, under the leadership of Andres Malong, a native of Binalatongan (San Carlos), the people rose up in arms.
16. Almazan Revolt in January 1661 – A part of the chain to the Malong Revolt was the Ilocos Revolt led by Don Pedro Almazan, illustrious and wealthy leader from San Nicolas, Laoag, Ilocos Norte. During the revolt he proclaimed himself “King of Ilocos”, but was later captured and executed.
17. Chinese Revolt of 1662 – Fearing a chinese invasion led by Koxinga, the garrisons around Manila were reinforced. An increasing anti-chinese sentiment grew within much of the population. In the end, the invasion did not materialize, but many locals massacred hundreds of chinese in manila.
18. Panay Revolt – The Panay religious uprising in 1663 involved Tapar, a native of the island of Panay, who wanted to establish a religious cult in the town of Oton. He attracted some followers with his stories about his friendship with a demon and planned/executed a revolution.
Tapar and his men were killed in a bloody skirmish against colonial foot soldiers and their corpses were impaled on stakes.
19. Zambal Revolt (1681-1683) – A group of chieftains from Zambales had refused to accept the authority of the spanish crown over the katagalugan realm.
A colonial force of 6,000 composite foot-soldiers of chinese, mexican, visayan, muslim and kapampangan to suppress the uprising. After the conflict, the spanish government pacified the entire area of Zambales but all of the chieftains who participated in the revolt were executed.
20. The Agrarian Revolt of 1745 was undertaken between the years 1745 and 1746 in Batangas, Laguna and Cavite and Bulacan, with its first sparks in the towns of Lian and Nasugbu in Batangas in view of land-grabbing of Spanish friars or Catholic religious orders.
The native landowners demanded the return of their native lands by the Spanish priest that resulted in massive looting of convents and arson of churches and ranches.
21. Dagohoy Rebellion of 1744-1829 in province of Bohol was by Francisco Dagohoy and his followers. This revolt is unique since it is the only revolt completely related to matters of religious customs, although unlike Tamblot, it is not a complete religious rebellion.
Dagohoy’s brother died in a duel and the spanish parish priest refused to give his brother a proper catholic burial, since dueling is a mortal sin. The refusal of the priest eventually led to the longest revolt ever held in Philippine history – 85 years.
22. Silang Revolt (1762-1763) is arguably one of the most famous revolts in Philippine history led by the couple of Diego Silang and Gabriela Silang. It took place during the british invasion of Manila.
Diego Silang declared the independence of Ilocandia on December 14, 1762, naming the state “Free Ilocos” and proclaimed Vigan the capital of this newly independent state. The British asked the help of Silang in fighting the spaniards.
But, Silang was killed on May 28, 1763 by a friend Miguel Vicos who was paid by the spaniards. His wife, Gabriela continued the struggle, earning the title “Joan of Arc of the Ilocos” because of her many victories in battle. The Spanish troops used Kampampangan soldiers to fight the Ilocanos.
Gabriela Silang was executed in Vigan on September 10, 1763.
23. Palaris Revolt (1762-1764)- During the european seven Years’ War, the spanish colonial government was besieged by english troops in manila that escaped and relocated to Bacolor with the kapangpangans in the province of Pangasinan and Pampanga.
Tarlac then was still a part of Pampanga. A native leader in pampanga, known as palaris, emerged as one of the leaders of the revolt against the spanish government. At the height of the uprising, Palaris commanded 10,000 men. He was also in communication with Silang, with whom he was coordinating a bigger offensive against the Spanish.
However, the Seven Years’ War ended on February 10, 1763 with the signing of the Treaty of Paris (1763) in Paris, France. Also, Silang was assassinated on May 28, 1763 by an Indio under the employ of the friars. The Spanish were then able to focus on the uprising and mustered forces to surround Palaris.
The Spanish friars, who were allowed to stay in the province, also started a campaign to persuade Pangasinan residents of the futility of the Palaris Revolt.
24. By March 1764, most of the province had already fallen, leaving Palaris no escape route except through Lingayen Gulf and the South China Sea in the west. He chose to stay in Pangasinan and hid among his supporters.
But his presence terrified his protectors and his own sister Simeona, who was apparently threatened by the Spanish clergy, January 16, 1765 and brought to the provincial capital of Lingayen for trial. Palaris and his men were hanged on February 26, 1765
25. Basi Revolt (1807) also known as the Ambaristo Revolt was a revolt undertaken from September 16 to 28, 1807. in the present-day town of Piddig in Ilocos Norte. This revolt is unique as it revolves around the Ilocanos’ love for basi, or sugarcane wine.
In 1786, the spanish colonial government monopolized the manufacture and sale of basi, effectively banning the indigenous wine-making of the ilocanos. The natives were forced to buy from government stores. The spanish troops eventually quelled the revolt on September 28, 1807.
26. Novales Mutiny (1823) – Spanish Novales who was exiled to quell the moro rebellion in mindanao secretly returned to Manila to start a revolt against the spanish government.
Along with 800 Indigenous natives in which his sergeants recruited, they seized the royal palace (palacio del gobernador), the Manila Cathedral, the city’s cabildo (city hall) and other important government buildings in Intramuros.
The townsfolk followed Novales and his troops as they marched into Manila but failed to seize Fort Santiago because Antonio Novales, his brother who commanded the citadel, refused to open its gates. Learning that Fort Santiago was still holding out the rebels, spanish soldiers were rushed to the fort.
Antonio was caught hiding under Puerta Real. At 5:00 pm of June 2, Novales was killed with Ruiz and 21 sergeants by firing squad in a garden near Puerta del Postigo while Andres pleaded for his freedom with the claim that he saved the spanish government from being overthrown.
27. The Palmero Conspiracy in 1828 was a failed plot to overthrow the Spanish colonial government in the Philippines. The Palmero brothers, members of a prominent clan of Marcelo Azcarraga Palmero, along with others from both the military and the civil service, planned to seize the government.
The Spanish government discovered the plan but thought of the embarrassment for the government since the conspirators were Spaniards themselves. The main conspirators were exiled.
28. Pule Revolt (1840-1843) – One of the most famous religious revolts is the Pule Revolt, more formally known as the Religious Revolt of Hermano Pule. In June 1840 and November 1841, this revolt was led by Apolinario de la Cruz.
Known as “Hermano Pule”, De la Cruz started his own religious order of Confradia de San José in Lucban, located in the present-day province of Quezon then called Tayabas.
There were two types of spanish priests in the Philippines then: secular priests or parish priests and religious priests or convent priests all Spanish religious orders of Augustinians, Jesuits and Franciscans that banned the native priests or babaylans and katalunans opposing the catholic rituals and teachings.
Thousands of people in Tayabas, Batangas, Laguna and even Manila protested. Because of this, the Spanish government sent in troops to forcibly disciplined De la Cruz and his followers who deviated from the catholic rituals and practice.
Many bloody battles were fought with the order’s last stand in Mount San Cristobal, near Mount Banahaw, in October 1841. The Spaniards eventually won, and Apolinario de la Cruz was executed on November 4, 1841 in the then-provincial capital, Tayabas.
29. Cavite Mutiny (1872) – The Cavite Mutiny of 1872 was an uprising of military personnel of Fort San Felipe, the Spanish arsenal in Cavite, Philippines on January 20, 1872.
Around 200 soldiers and laborers rose up in the belief that it would elevate to a national uprising. The mutiny was unsuccessful, and government soldiers executed many of the participants and began to crack down on a burgeoning nationalist movement.
30. The mock-battle of manila bay between the spanish and american navy – The spanish government of about three hundred years was already at the verge of losing control in luzon due to the ferocity of attacks of bonifacio’s katipunan.
In order to change the course of their imminent surrender, the spaniards struck a deal with the americans which were still under the influence and control of some nations from europe, to stage a pre-arranged battle in manila bay and with the aim of surrendering to the americans, instead of the tagalog forces.
Europeans brands of revolution had their own contribution to the unending wars in the world, while the preceding was the pattern employed by the magdalo of aguinaldo in these modern times.
World War I, as they termed it, is known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war centered in europe from July 28, 1914 lasting until November 11, 1918 or for more than two years. 1918.
At least nine million combatants and seven million civilians died as a result of the war which was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, paving the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved.
All the world’s economic great powers separated in two opposing alliances: the Allies based on the Triple Entente of the United Kingdom, France and the Russian Empire), and the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary.
Italy that was a member of the Triple Alliance alongside Germany and Austria-Hungary, did join the Central Powers instead, as Austria-Hungary had taken the offensive against the terms of the alliance.
The alliances were reorganized and expanded as more nations entered the war: Italy, Japan and the United States joined the Allies, and the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria connived with the Central Powers.
The spark for that war was the June 28, 1914 assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo.
Diplomatic crisis emerged when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. International alliances formed over the previous decades were invoked.
Within weeks, the major powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world.
The Austro-Hungarians fired the first shots in July 28 in preparation for the invasion of Serbia and the rest is history.
The war approached a resolution after the Russian government collapsed in March 1917, and a subsequent revolution in November brought the Russians to terms with the Central Powers.
On 4 November 1918, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to an armistice. After a 1918 German offensive along the western front, the Allies drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives and began entering the trenches.
Later, Germany, which had its own trouble with revolutionaries, agreed to an armistice on 11 November 1918, ending the war in victory for the Allies.
By the end of the war, four major imperial powers—the German, Russian, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires—ceased to exist.
The maps of Europe and Southwest Asia were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created.
The League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such an appalling conflict. This aim, however, failed with weakened states, renewed European nationalism and the German feeling of humiliation contributing to the rise of fascism.
All of these conditions eventually led to World War II also known as the Second World War after more than 20 years.
This global war lasted from 1939 to 1945 or about six years of sufferings of the innocent ones.
Again, powerful nations formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis that became the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people, from more than 30 different countries.
This state of “total war” was marked by mass deaths of civilians, holocaust, the three alls policy, the strategic bombing of enemy industrial and/or population centers, and the first use of nuclear weapons in japan by the americans resulting to an estimated 50 million to 85 million fatalities.
These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history.
The empire of japan aimed to dominate asia and the pacific, was already at war with the china in 1937, but the world war is generally said to have begun on 1 September 1939.
Also, the invasion of poland by germany and subsequent declarations of war on germany by france and the united kingdom.
Germany formed the axis alliance with Italy, conquering or subduing much of continental europe. Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned between themselves and annexed territories such as Poland, Finland and the Baltic states.
The United Kingdom and the other members of the British Commonwealth were the only major Allied forces continuing the fight against the Axis, with battles taking place in North Africa and the Horn of Africa as well as the long-running Battle of the Atlantic.
In December 1941, Japan joined the Axis, attacked the United States and European territories in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific, including the Philippines that harbored the american bases.
At the start of the japanese invasion or after pearl harbor bombing, MacArthur left the Philippines with his famous “i shall return” but leaving the islands and their inhabitants at the mercy of the japanese.
So, the war in europe ended with the dropping of atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 August and 9 August respectively.
As an aftermath, Soviet Union declared war on Japan, and with the invasion of Manchuria, Japan surrendered on 15 August 1945 thus ending the war in Asia.
The United Nations (UN) was eventually established with the United States, the Soviet Union, China, the United Kingdom, and France being permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.
Then the Cold War between Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years.